Technologies: Thermax Vapor Absorption Cooling Systems

Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Absorption Chillers

As a global leader in vapor absorption cooling systems, Thermax offers a wide range of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly absorption chillers. The chillers use steam, hot water, gas, exhaust gas and mixed fuels as an energy-source alternative to electricity-driven chillers, and Thermax provides many capacity options from 15 to 4,000 tons.

Thermax manufactures the world’s most efficient absorption chiller, and its technologies integrate well with efficient energy setups such as cogeneration and combined heating, cooling and power (CHPC) systems. Since Thermax chillers don’t use harmful refrigerants like CFCs, these eco-friendly systems are the natural choice for engineers, contractors and building owners seeking to increase building efficiency.

Thermax is the first absorption chiller manufacturer in the world to commercialize the ultimate in absorption technology – the Triple Effect Absorption Chiller. This is a major breakthrough in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning. Triple effect absorption chillers have a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 1.8, which is nearly 30% higher than the double effect absorption chillers. 

Basics of Absorption Cooling

Vapour Absorption chillers uses water as the refrigerant and Lithium Bromide (LiBr) solution as the absorbent. The process of cooling goes through stages such as evaporation of refrigerant in evaporator, absorption of refrigerant by concentrated LiBr solution in absorber, boiling of diluted LiBr solution to generate refrigerant vapour in generator and condensation of refrigerant vapour in condenser. 

The boiling point of water is directly proportional to pressure. At 6 mm Hg absolute pressure the boiling point of water is 3.7°C. To change water from liquid to vapour it has to be heated. The heat, required to change the phase of a liquid to vapour, is called the Latent heat of evaporation. 

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) is a chemical similar to common salt (NaCl). LiBr is soluble in water. The LiBr water solution has a property to absorb water due to its chemical affinity. As the concentration of LiBr solution increases, its affinity towards water vapour increases. Also, as the temperature of LiBr solution decreases, its affinity towards water vapour increases. Further, there is a large difference between vapour pressure of LiBr and water. This means that if we heat the LiBr water solution, the water will vaporise but the LiBr will stay in the solution and become concentrated. 

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